Tuesday 22nd of October 2002 07:29 AM 
Biographies: Media Figures

Click on thumbnails to see larger images

Please note: I have added flags at the head of each biography in order to give visitors a way of seeing, at a glance, where the person was born, where they spent most of their life, and which side they fought for in the Boer War.

1st Flag=birthplace (if known)
2nd flag=main nation of residence (no second flag if birthplace was nation of residence)
3rd flag=side figure fought (or acted) for

EnglandBoer Republics - War Flag
CARTWRIGHT, Albert (1868-1956)

Born in Manchester, England, he came to South Africa in 1889, and worked as a journalist both in the Transvaal and the Cape. During the War, his pro-Boer views gained him admiration on the Boer side and strong opposition on the other, ultimately leading to his resignation. He again expressed unpopular views in the Transvaal at the time of the Chinese labour importations, 1904-08. In 1914 he returned to England and edited the newspaper West Africa. He retired in 1947.

EnglandUnited Kingdom
CHURCHILL, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (1874-1965)
Sir W.L.S. Churchill
British statesman, Prime Minister (1940-45, 1951-55), and author. Born in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England, the eldest son of Randolph Churchill. He trained at Sandhurst, and was gazetted to the 4th Hussars in 1895. His army career included fighting at Omdurman (1898) with the Nile Expeditionary Force. During the South African War he acted as a London newspaper correspondent. He was captured by a Boer commando and imprisoned. He subsequently escaped in greatly exaggerated conditions (he apparently swam the 'mighty Apies'). Initially a Conservative MP (1900), he joined the Liberals in 1904, and was Colonial Under-Secretary (1905), President of the Board of Trade (1908), Home Secretary (1910), and First Lord of the Admiralty (1911). In 1915 he was made the scapegoat for the Dardanelles disaster, but in 1917 became Minister of Munitions. After World War I he was Secretary of State for War and Air (1919-21), and - as a "Constitutionalist' supporter of the Conservatives - Chancellor of the Exchequer (1924-29). In 1929 he returned to the Conservative fold, but remained out of step with the leadership until World War II, when he returned to the Admiralty; then, on Chamberlain's defeat (May 1940), he formed a coalition government, holding both the premiership and the Defence portfolio, and leading Britain alone through the war against Germany and Italy with steely resolution. Defeated in the July 1945 election, he became a pugnacious Leader of the Opposition. In 1951 he was Prime-Minister again, and after 1955 remained a venerated backbencher. In his last years, he was often described as "the greatest living Englishman'. He achieved a world reputation not only as a great strategist and inspiring war leader, but as the last of the classic orators with a supreme command of English; as a talented painter; and as a writer with an Augustan style, a great breadth of mind, and a profound sense of history. He was knighted in 1953, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature the same year. He left a widow, Clementine Ogilvy Hozier (1885-1977), whom he had married in 1908, and who was made a life peer in 1965 for her charitable work (Baroness Spencer-Churchill of Chartwell).

Netherlands - HollandBoer Republics - War Flag
ENGELENBURG, Dr. Frans Vredenryk (1863-1938)

South African newspaper editor and art collector. Born in Arnhem, Holland, he qualified as an advocate but took up journalism, and in 1889 emigrated to the Cape, where his aunt, Mrs Marie Koopmans-De Wet was living. His arrival in Pretoria, where he intended to practise, coincided with the death of Jonker, editor of the leading Dutch newspaper Die Volkstem. For nearly thirty-five years, interrupted by the South African War, he edited this journal, enjoying the confidence of President Kruger and exercising great influence. His elegant writing and wit made him at first unsympathetic to Afrikaans, but he later changed his views and 'took up the language'. At the request of General Louis Botha, whose biography he afterwards wrote, he accompanied the South African delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference of 1919. He retired in 1924 to concentrate on his art and other collections, which, along with his house below the Union Buildings in Pretoria, he left to 'the people of South Africa'.

EnglandBoer Republics - War Flag
FINLASON, Charles Edward (1860-1917)

South African journalist and author. Born in England, he emigrated to the Cape where he became known as a newspaper man and a cricketer. He was employed on the Independent in Kimberley where he 'gained much popularity' [sic]. Soon after the occupation he visited Rhodesia and embodied his experiences in a lighthearted book, A Nobody in Mashonaland (1893), which had an excellent reception. He was later editor of the Press in Pretoria, which supported President Kruger and the Johannesburg Times, mouthpiece of Sir J.B. Robinson. As editor of the Star he involved the paper in a libel action and resigned in 1898.

Cape ColonyUnited Kingdom
GOLDMAN, Major Charles Sydney (1868-1958)

South African writer and financier. Born at Burghersdorp, Cape Province, he reached the Witwatersrand and became associated with Sir Sigismund Neumann. In 1895-96 he issued the authoritative work of reference, South African Mining and Finance, containing a unique Atlas of the Rand. During the South African War he was in the field with General French's cavalry, and wrote a book on his experiences as a correspondent. Settling in England, he married the daughter of Viscount Peel, Speaker of the House of Commons, and sat as a member for many years, supporting Tariff Reform and other national causes. In addition to his South African interests, he invested in East Africa and Canada. After World War II he returned to the Cape.

Cape Colony
LEIPOLDT, C. Louis (1880-1947)

Born Worcester, Cape Province. He acted as a war correspondent for the Manchester Guardian during the Anglo-Boer War, and studied medicine in London from 1902 -1907. After world-wide travels, he returned to South Africa, working as a medical inspector of schools, journalist and, from 1925, child specialist in Cape Town. He was also a celebrated poet.

Cope, J. & Krige, Uys [eds] The Penguin Book of South African Verse. London:Penguin, 1968.

ScotlandUnited Kingdom
MACKENZIE, Thomas William (1875-1939)

South African newspaper editor. Born in Inverness, Scotland, he went to South Africa as a journalist in 1898 and served as a special Reuters correspondent with the British forces in the South African War. Joining the staff of the Friend in Bloemfontein, he became editor in 1908 and made it one of the most popular papers in South Africa.

Netherlands - HollandBoer Republics - War Flag
OERDER, Frans (1867-1944)

South African artist. He was South Africa's first war artist in the Anglo-Boer War on the side of the Boers. Oerder trained in Rotterdam during the heyday of French Impressionism and spent the years 1890 to 1908 in South Africa, mainly in Pretoria. Famous for his portraits and landscapes, it was his flowerpieces and still lifes which gained him renown abroad. 'His eye for telling detail and meticulous rendering of the surfaces of objects, such as metal, china and paper, were matched by a brush as rapid as an impressionist's'. After thirty years in Holland, he returned to South Africa in 1938.

PATERSON, Andrew Barton "Banjo" (17th February 1864 - 1941)

Australian writer, journalist and soliciter. Born at Narambla, New South Wales, not far from Orange. He was the son of a Scottish immigrant from Lanarkshire, who had arrived in Australia in the early 1850s.
His early life was spent near Yass in New South Wales, and this is where he became acquainted with the colourful bush characters that he wrote about so vividly in his later life.
Much of his early life was spent around horses, and his life-long love of horse-racing and polo is reflected in many of his poems. He was a member of the first NSW polo team to play against the Victorians.
His schooling was at Sydney Grammar and when he left, at the age of 16, he became an articled clerk in a Sydney lawyer's office.
The first of many ballads he had published in The Bulletin (the top newspaper of the time, and still very influential) was El Mahdi to the Australian Troops, in February 1885. This was the beginning of a long and productive relationship with this newspaper. His pseudonym, "The Banjo", was the name of a racehorse his father had once owned. It was not until 1895, ten years later, on the publication of The Man from Snowy River and other verses, that the public finally discovered the name of the man behind these verses.
In 1892, he participated in the celebrated "Bush battle", locking horns with his friend and literary colleague Henry Lawson in a number of poems in the pages of The Bulletin.
For contemporary impressions of Paterson, it is worth looking at a short article written in 1895 by Annie Bright, the founding editor of the Sydney literary monthly, Cosmos.
Even though he was a practicing lawyer in Sydney, he always had a hankering for the bush, and made numerous trips to remote areas in Queensland and the Northern Territory. His links with The Bulletin prompted the Sydney Morning Herald and Melbourne's The Argus to send him as a war correspondent to the Boer War in South Africa in 1900 and 1901. His vivid and exciting reports were well received, and have been recently compiled and edited by.
In 1901, Paterson accepted another commission, to report the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion in China. He went from there to London, where he renewed his friendships with Rudyard Kipling and other people he had met in South Africa. Some of these experiences are remembered in his war memoirs, Happy Dispatches, published in 1934.
In 1902, his second collection was published, Rio Grande's Last Race and Other Verses.
In 1903, he became editor of the Sydney Evening News. In that year he also married Alice Walker, a grazier's daughter and, in 1906, he published the novel An Outback Marriage.
In early 1904, he showed a well-developed sense of humour in a series of satirical articles for The Evening News, where The Oracle pontificates on a number of subjects.
In 1908 he and his family left Sydney and ran a grazing property in the highlands near Yass in Southern NSW.
In 1914, with the outbreak of the First World War, Paterson joined the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF). He ended up as a major in the First Australian Remount Unit, a unit of horsemen from bush and racecourse whose task was to train mounts for the Australian Light Horse. This was done in Egypt. His skills with men and mounts gained him great respect.
In 1917, his third collection was published, Saltbush Bill, J.P., and Other Verses.
In 1919, after the cessation of hostilities, Paterson returned to Sydney as a freelance journalist. In 1922 he became editor of The Sydney Sportsman, a weekly sporting newspaper, to which he also contributed ballads and essays, and which became very popular under his direction.
In 1930 Paterson retired from full-time journalism, but remained a freelance sports reporter and feature writer. He also became a regular broadcaster for the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC).
In 1933 he published a delightful collection of children's poetry, The Animals Noah Forgot, illustrated by the popular (and controversial) artist, Norman Lindsay.
In these later years he also published Happy Dispatches, memoirs of his wartime experiences, and a novel The Shearer's Colt, which reflects his great love of horse-racing.
In 1939 Paterson was awarded the CBE (Commander of the British Empire) for his services to Australian literature.
He died in 1941, just short of his 77th birthday.


Cape ColonyUnited Kingdom
STENT, Vere Palgrave (1872-1941)

Educated at St Andrew's College in Grahamstown and in England. As a very young man he went to Kimberley, where he met Cecil Rhodes, and, through this friendship trekked to Rhodesia. As correspondent of the Cape Times, he was present at the Matabele Rebellion in 1896, and at the famous indaba to which Rhodes and a handful of companions went unarmed to meet the leaders of the insurgent Matabele. Stent was also in the Siege of Mafeking and saw much active service in the South African War. He became editor of the Pretoria News and gave it a strongly pro-Imperialist line.

EnglandUnited Kingdom
YOUNGHUSBAND, Sir Francis Edward (31 May 1863 - 31 July 1942)

Writer on South Africa. Second son of Major-General John William Younghusband and his wife, Clara Jane, daughter of R.G. Shaw. Educated at Clifton and Sandhurst, he obtained a commission in the King's Dragoon Guards, then stationed at Meerut, in 1882. After 1884 he was employed on reconnaissance and intelligence work, and between 1886 and 1891 he completed three journeys in the Karakoram and Pamir. On the first of these he travelled to Manchuria, returning across the Gobi Desert, the first European to do so. The records of these journeys and accounts given before the Royal Geographical Society, which in 1890 awarded him the Founder's Medal, were published as The Heart of a Continent in 1896. In 1891 he was awarded the C.I.E. and from 1893 to 1894 was Political Officer in Hunza. As correspondent for The Times (London) he accompanied a relief force to Chitral.
It was in this capacity that Younghusband travelled to South Africa during long leave (1895-97). In South Africa of Today (1898) he gave accounts of interviews with President S.J.P. Kruger, Commandant Piet Joubert and Judge J.G. Kotze. Younghusband was in Johannesburg when the Jameson Raid occurred, and although he was aware of the frustrations of the Uitlanders, he was in sympathy with President Kruger. He also went to see Cecil Rhodes on behalf of the Reform Committee, which wanted to clarify the question of whether the rising was to take place under the Transvaal flag or the Union Jack. Rhodes immediately perceived that enthusiasm for the proposed uprising had evaporated. Some accounts state that Rhodes, in anger, suggested that Younghusband should lead the uprising, which, however, he refused to do. It was partly as a result of Younghusband's mission that Rhodes decided to telegraph Dr L.S. Jameson, instructing him not to proceed. Younghusband was on the scene shortly after Jameson surrendered, and his description of Jameson's capture is often quoted. In a report to the Times Younghusband gave as his opinion that enthusiasm for the rising had waned because the average worker was at last receiving good wages and saw nothing to gain from such a venture.
At the close of the Matabele Campaign (1896) he proceeded to Rhodesia and thence to Natal. Having been an official in India, he was seen as an ideal person to report on the issue of Indian immigration and on legislation relating to Indians. He interviewed Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian leaders, and was said to have remarked that they were 'cultured and intelligent men', yet he was inclined to agree with the restrictions placed on Indians.
In 1901 he received the Kaiser-i-Hind medal and in 1902 was appointed first resident in Indore, and then commissioner in Tibet. Because of his success in handling a mission to troubled Lhasa, he was created a K.C.I.E. As president of the Royal Geographical Society from 1919, he revived the project of conquering Mount Everest, his knowledge of the Himalayas being invaluable to explorers. His abiding interest in the subject led him to publish The Epic of Mount Everest (1926) and Everest; the Challenge (1936). A devout Christian, his Life in the Stars (1927) and The Living Universe (1933) expressed his mystical religious philosophy.
In 1897 he had married Helen Augusta, daughter of C. Magniac, M.P. and after his death was survived by a daughter.

Belfield, Eversley. The Boer War. Hamden: Archon, 1975.
C.F.J.Muller, 500 Years: A History of South Africa (Cape Town: H & R Academia, 1981)
Rosenthal. Eric [comp.] Southern African Dictionary of National Biography. London: Frederick Warne, 1966.


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Churchill Archives Centre
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Further Reading

Churchill, Winston S. Ian Hamilton's March. London: Longmans, Green, 1900. DT932c17.

Hagemann, E.R. & Stallman, R.W. [eds]. The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane. New York: New York University Press, 1964.

Paterson, A.B. Happy Dispatches: Journalistic Pieces from Banjo Paterson's Days as a War Correspondent. Sydney: Lansdowne Press, 1980.

Ralph, Julian. An American with Lord Roberts. NY: Stokes, 1901. DT932R334.

Walker, Shirley. 'The Boer War: Patterson, Abbott, Brennan, Miles Franklin and Morant'. Australian Literary Studies, 12 (1985), pp. 207-222.

War's Brighter Side: Story of the Friend Newspaper Edited by the Correspondents with Lord Roberts' Forces, March to April 1900. NY: Appleton, 1901. DT939R34.